Summary of articles/ Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1965 t.19 z.3

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Summary of articles/ Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1965 t.19 z.3

Opis

Polska Sztuka Ludowa 1965 t.19, z.3; s.178-179

Data

1965

Relacja

oai:cyfrowaetnografia.pl:publication:4822

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application/pdf

Język

pol.

Identyfikator

oai:cyfrowaetnografia.pl:4476

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Q U A R T E R L Y P U B L I S H E D B Y T H E A R T I N S T I T U T E OF T H E P O L I S H A C A D E M Y OF SCIENCES
No. 3

YEAR BOOK X I X

1965

SUMMARY OF A R T I C L E S
Giza

Frenkel

J E W I S H PAPER CUTS

The article supplies material for an examination of
m u t u a l influences between Polish and Jewish paper
cuts, increasingly taken into account i n studies on the
origins of Polish paper cuts.
Jewish paper cuts were very widespread i n Poland,
certain parts of Russia, Germany and probably Holland;
certain varieties of them can be found i n Italy, countries
of the Near East and N o r t h e r n Africa.
The preserved material originates from the X l X t h
and early X X t h centuries. F r o m earlier periods, only
parchment cuts are s t i l l left. Jewish paper cuts have
always performed a cult function. They are characterized
by an abundance of forms and motives and almost
always an introduction of w r i t i n g .
Motives:
the central position is occupied by the
"menora" i.e. a seven-armed candlestick or a table
w i t h the Decalogue. Above them a crown, eagle, or
sometimes the shield of David can be found. A r o u n d
them — animal motives, vegetal and geometrical orna­
ments. A n i m a l motives have a symbolical meaning,
often connected w i t h the meaning of the inscription.
A r c h i t e c t u r a l motives and the tree of life can also be
found. The motives common i n paper cuts can also be
found i n other w o r k s of Jewish folk art: i n metal,
carvings and embroidery.
Types of cuts: The most impressive form of Jewish'
paper cuts is the "mizrach" — hanged on the eastern
w a l l of houses and temples. M i z r a c h is characterized by
its considerable size and rectangular shape. I t is made
from w h i t e paper, painted and framed under glass.
Other types include "szewuosl" and "rojzele", small
cuts for decorating windows on Pentecost. They could
be found only i n Eastern Europe, p a r t i c u l a r l y Poland
and neighbouring territories. This type includes t w o
forms: rectangular, w i t h typical Jewish motives, and
circular — a rosette. A separate group consisted of
cuts w i t h soldiers as the motive.
A common type of paper cuts were the flags for
Simchat-Tora, carried i n the parade behind the Tora.
They were two-sided, made from colored paper and
pasted onto a colorful background.
Another type is represented by cuts used as charms,
the so-called "Kimpetbrieflech", hung on 4 walls i n
the delivery room to offset the evil power of the w i t c h
L i l i t h . Other types of paper cuts included timetables
for the period between Pascha and Szewuoth and cuts
for decorating shacks and lanterns i l l u m i n a t i n g various
festivities.
The makers of paper cuts were always men: pupils
and teachers of Jewish schools, sometimes older persons.
The technique:
the paper cut was made by first
drawing the design on paper folded i n two, then i t was
fastened to a board and cut out w i t h a sharp knife,
the asymmetrical motives being cut out separately. I n
the beginning of the X X t h century, Jewish paper cuts
began to vanish and during the war whatever was left
was almost completely destroyed.
I n paper cuts from Africa and the Near East, t w o
groups stand out. They are both called "menora", but
the first group is a counterpart of the mizrach and the
second includes smaller paper cuts used as charms.
The motives are the same as i n European paper cuts
but they have a specific oriental style.
Origins:
The origins of Jewish paper cuts should
be sought for i n the Far East. The art of cutting,
w h i c h probably derives from shadow acting, expanded
its scope and spread out w i t h time through China,
Java, Persia and T u r k e y to N o r t h Africa and from
there i n the X V I I t h century to I t a l y and Europe.
Jews i n the East must have therefore k n o w n the
art of paper cutting already in very old times and
preserved materials show the existence of Jewish paper
cuts i n Europe i n the X V I I t h century.
Jewish paper cuts therefore have old traditions,
carried by Jews to different corners of the w o r l d and
178

everywhere ancient tradition was shaped i n accordance
w i t h local customs and requirements.
The question of influence between Jewish and Polish
paper cuts can be considered only i n relation to the
group of paper cuts posted on windows d u r i n g the
Pentecostal period, since they were the only ones w h i c h
the Polish population could k n o w . Some motives of
this group of cuts l i k e the rosette, birds, certain vegetal
and geometrical ornaments show a certain resemblance
to Polish paper cuts. The possibility of influence is
supported by reports that the f i i s t Polish paper cuts
were made from w h i t e paper i.e. the same as Jewish
ones, and also the i n i t i a l range of Polish paper cuts
i n the X l X t h century corresponds to the range of
Jewish paper cuts (Congressional Kingdom, the regions
of L w ó w , Tarnopol and S t a n i s ł a w ó w ) . M i g r a n t Jewish
craftmen and merchants could have served as m i d d l e ­
men i n the art of paper cutting.
Marek
CENTER

Arpad
Kowalski
OF F O L K S C U L P T U R E

THE

SIERPC

Sierpc county i n the Mazowsze region presently
ranks among the most active centers of f o l k sculpture.
Twelve sculptors w o r k there. The center was formed
only i n recent years and the first sculptures by Rusz­
k o w s k i , S k i r z y ń s k i , D e r c z y ń s k i , W. K r a j e w s k i and D u ż y ń s k i appeared at exhibitions and competitions i n 1958,
taking up the declining t r a d i t i o n of sculpting. Demand
was decisive i n the formation and development of this
center — p a r t i c u l a r l y interest expressed by C P L i A ,
competitions, exhibitions (also abroad i n B r o o k l y n and
Santa Fe) and the creation of possibilities for selling
sculptures at home and abroad.
I n 1962, Ruszkowski's grandson — K u r o w s k i , W . K r a jewski's son — Jan as w e l l as H . Wierzchowski and
later his brother M i r o s ł a w followed the example of
their predecessors and tried their hand at sculpting.
The number of sculptors steadily increased, but many
of the less talented were eliminated, after failing to
pass the selective screening set up by CPLiA, Neigh­
bouring residence, frequent contacts, common interests
and j o i n t undertakings on bigger projects l i k e the
altar (fig. ) or the m u l t i - f i g u r e historical composi­
tion "The K o ś c i u s z k o Insurrection" are factors w h i c h
tend to consolidate the group. M u t u a l influence can be
detected i n the characteristic features of a m a j o r i t y
of sculptures from the center. These include: compact
shaping of the block, a schematic approach to the figure,
scarce ornamentation and an expressiveness of the face.
A p a r t from the group of sculptors from Sierpc and
Zawidz stands Helena S z c z y p a w k a - G o ł e b i o w s k a , whose
p r i m i t i v e sculptures failed to gain the approval Df
local authorities and the CPLiA. I n the author's opinion,
her sculptures at least m e r i t the attention of the
Ethnographic Museum i n Warsaw and are w o r t h y of
separate discussion.
Next, the author discusses the advantages and dis­
advantages of C P L i A patronage. The advantages include
the v e r y fact of the center's creation, its development
and the high salaries of the creators. The disadvantages
— the danger of a transformation of the sculptures
into mass production, advance suggestions on the themes
and artistic shape of the works, a mercantile attitude
resulting i n creative activity stemming not from need
but f r o m orders.
The successes of the artists from Sierpc have caused
that they are respected i n their environment but there
is no demand for their sculptures, they do not conform
to the present esthetical tastes of r u r a l areas. Hence,
a sort of a sculptor's vocation emerges, w i t h the
sculptor w o r k i n g i n the village to meet city and export
demands. The county authorities assist the artists, plans
are being d r a w n for a regional museum i n Sierpc,
a studio has been b u i l t for Ruszkowski and he has
been awarded a scholarship.

J u l i u s z A. C h r o S c i c k i — BEADS, N I P P L E A N D
GOLDFINCH (GOTHIC ART A N D F O L K BELIEFS)
Problems of ideological content have come
out
considerably more sharply than the artistic f o r m i n
the monograph on the p o r t r a i t of the Madonna from
Dembe. The anonymous painter f r o m the middle of
the X V t h century depicted the V i r g i n M a r y and
the
I n f a n t Jesus w i t h a necklace of beads, a nipple in
hand and a goldfinch on a string. I n the l i g h t of
H . Friedemann's studies on the role of the goldfinch
in European devotional art, the Madonna f r o m Dembe
appears to have a unique position. Unfortunately, this
researcher omitted Polish painting and failed to deal
i n adequate p r o p o r t i o n w i t h paintings f r o m
Bohemia,
M o r a v i a and Southern Germany. Another part of the
article deals w i t h plastic presentation of the n i p p l e
and discusses its symbolic meaning.
The m a i n thesis resulting f r o m an analysis of the
various elements of the painting is the presumption
that the plate was donated because of the illness of
a child of some s t i l l u n k n o w n donors. The i n d i v i d u a l
motives: goldfinch, nipple and
bead are
discussed
against the background of preserved examples of X I V —
X V I I t h century sculpture and painting and confronted
w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l folk beliefs and more recent l i t e r a r y
texts f r o m the X V I t h and X V I I t h centuries.
I t was attempted, in a l i m i t e d scope, to take into
account folk beliefs in interpreting the ideological mean­
i n g of Gothic plate paintings.

n O J l b C K O E
KBAPTAJIbHblïï
jVu 3

JKYPHAJI

Anna
Kunczyńska-Iracka
F O L K FLOWERS (comments after
hibition)

ARTIFICIAL
Warsaw
ex­

A r t i f i c i a l flowers are produced i n almost every region
of Poland and are among the most dynamically ex­
panding fields of contemporary folk art. They
are
m a i n l y used for decorating rooms. I n the areas of
Częstochowa, Kielce and Cracow they are also used
for decorating graves on A l l Saints Day.
The flowers are
them mainly for
there are several
and Siedlec D u ż y
flowers for m a r k e t

mostly made by women. They make
themselves or for neighbours
and
large centers, such as K o z i e g ł o w y
near C z ę s t o c h o w a , w h i c h produce
sale.

The materials most commonly used i n the production
of flowers are colored tissue and paper. Flowers f r o m
feathers are mostly produced i n the regions of C z ę ­
stochowa, Opoczno and K u r p i e , f r o m shavings around
Częstochowa
The most numerous and artistically most interesting
flowers are produced in centers w i t h a strong t r a d i t i o n
of folk decorative art, such as K u r p i e , the Ł o w i c z and
Kielce regions.
The exhibition of a r t i f i c i a l flowers held in Warsaw
in January 1965 by C P L i A was the f i r s t of its k i n d
and a great success. A l l the exhibits were sold to
viewers.

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r

CZASOPISMA

INSTYTUTU SZTUKI

PAN

wydawane przez
P.P. W Y D A W N I C T W A A R T Y S T Y C Z N E

I FILMOWE

B I U L E T Y N H I S T O R I I S Z T U K I , k w a r t a l n i k , ponad 100 str. d u ż e g o
formatu, o k o ł o 100 ilustracji. Cena 24 zł, prenumerata p ó ł r o c z n a 48 zł,
roczna — 96 zł.
P O L S K A S Z T U K A L U D O W A , k w a r t a l n i k , 64 str. d u ż e g o f o r m a t u ,
bogaty m a t e r i a ł ilustracyjny. Cena 18 zl, prenumerata p ó ł r o c z n a 36 zł,
roczna — 72 zł.
P A M I Ę T N I K T E A T R A L N Y , k w a r t a l n i k , ponad 170 str. druku, o k o ł o
100 ilustracji. Cena 18 zł, prenumerata półroczna 3U zł, roczna — 72 zł.
M U Z Y K A , k w a r t a l n i k , o k o ł o 130 str. d r u k u , liczne p r z y k ł a d y
Cena IB zł, prenumerata p ó ł r o c z n a 36 zł, roczna — 72 zł.
Wszystkie czasopisma n a b y w a ć
meracie.

można

regularnie

jedynie w

nutowe.
prenu­

K W A R T A L N I K F I L M O W Y — w roku 1966 przestanie się u k a z y w a ć ;
zeszyt 4 za rok 1965 będzie ostatnim numerem tego czasopisma.

W A R U N K I PRENUMERATY
„POLSKIEJ SZTUKI LUDOWEJ"
P r e n u m e r a t ę na k r a j p r z y j m u j ą u r z ę d y pocztowe, listonosze oraz O d działy i Delegatury „ R u c h " .
M o ż n a r ó w n i e ż d o k o n y w a ć w p ł a t na konto P K O Nr 1-6-100020 —
Centrala K o l p o r t a ż u Prasy i W y d a w n i c t w „ R u c h " Warszawa, u l . W r o ­
nia 23.
Prenumeraty przyjmowane są do 15 dnia m i e s i ą c a p o p r z e d z a j ą c e g o
okres prenumeraty.
Cena prenumeraty: p ó ł r o c z n i e zł 36, rocznie zl 72.
P r e n u m e r a t ę na z a g r a n i c ę , k t ó r a jest o 40% d r o ż s z a — przyjmuje
Biuro Kolportażu Wydawnictw
Zagranicznych „ R u c h " Warszawa,
ul. Wronia 23, tel. 20-46-88, konto PKO Nr 1-6-100024.
SPRZEDAŻ
Egzemplarze n u m e r ó w zdezaktualizowanych m o ż n a n a b y w a ć w P u n k ­
cie W y s y ł k o w y m Prasy Archiwalnej „ R u c h " , Warszawa, u l . N o w o w i e j ­
ska nr 15/17, konto P K O N r 114-6-700041 V I I Oddział Miejski Warszawa.
A k t u a l n e numery czasopism I n s t y t u t u Sztuki P A N posiada
Rozpowszechniania W y d a w n i c t w Naukowych P A N w P a ł a c u
i N a u k i w Warszawie.

Ośrodek
Kultury

S t o ł e c z n e Z a k ł a d y Graficzne,
Z . I. W - w a , P o d c h o r ą ż y c h 39. Z a m . 502/65. P a p .
i l u s t r . k i . I I I , 120 g A l + k a r t o n b i a ł y k l . n i . 220 g. B l . N a k ł a d 1271) egz. E - 7 5

i
!
I
j
\
i

Kolekcja

Cytat

“Summary of articles/ Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1965 t.19 z.3,” Cyfrowa Etnografia, Dostęp 6 października 2022, https://cyfrowaetnografia.pl/items/show/5957.

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