Summary of articles / Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1997 t.51 z.3-4

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Summary of articles / Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1997 t.51 z.3-4

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Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1997 t.51 z.3-4, s.222-224

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1997

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Licencja PIA

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oai:cyfrowaetnografia.pl:publication:2646

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pol.

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oai:cyfrowaetnografia.pl:2461

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SUMMARY OF ARTICLES
S/awom/r S/kora
A n Autobiography C o m p o s e d of Photographs. T h e Meta­
p h o r and the P h o t o g r a p h y
The a u t h o r discusses and interprets a n unusual b o o k - a l b u m
by J o h n Berger and J e a n Mohr: ДлоГлег kVayof Te#ip"(1982),
and in particular focuses on an interpretation of the photonarrative composed of about 150 photographs and conceived as
a fictitious a u t o b i o g r a p h y of an old peasant woman. Attention is
d r a w n t o the fact that one of the foremost manners of creating
m e a n i n g by resorting t o a configuration of photographs can be
deciphered as a n a t t e m p t at creating metaphors. T h e latter not
only "provide food for thought" and stimulate the imagination but
are also a n attempt at bringing t h e viewer-reader and viewed
reality emotionally closer. T h e author accentuates the non-linear
nature of the narrative c o m p o s e d of t w o s u p p l e m e n t i n g para­
d i g m s - history (chronology) and association proper to h u m a n
memory as well as to mythical thinking. A s a result, however, the
narrative possesses m o r e of a spatial (image) t h a n a t e m p o r a l
(film, book) nature. In the opinion of the author, such a narrative
m e e t s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of new postmodernist ethnography,
outlined by S t e p h e n Tyler, whose task is not so m u c h the
depiction or representation of reality as its evoking.
R y s z a r d rCaspemw/cz
Aesthetic T a u t o l o g y a n d the Primacy of Perception.
A Brief R e m a r k o n the Burckhardt Vision of Art upon the
E x a m p l e of Елллел/лрел a us R u b e n s
The scientific w o r k s a n d personality of Jacob Burckhardt
inspired historians of art representing s u c h diverse methodologi­
cal stands as Heinrich Wolfflin, A b y W a r b u r g o r Edgar W i n d ,
c o n n e c t e d with the milieu c o n c e n t r a t e d around the latter. Burck­
hardt himself conceived art to be one of the m o s t important
sources of cognition; in his project of the history of culture, the
work of art c o m p r i s e s the most essential point in w h i c h the past
meets the present and offers the scholar insight into the m e a n i n g
of history a n d the uninterrupted process of rendering it topical in
the present. V i a art, the historian of culture is capable of
transcending beyond t h e historical fact and the variability of
events, s e e k i n g certain anthropological foundations of m a n
within history. U p o n the example of Е л л л е ш л д е л aws Rubens,
one of the last works by Burckhardt, published p o s t h u m o u s l y ,
this study tries to indicate the significance of the artistic analysis
of the paintings by R u b e n s performed by the Swiss scholar,
d e m o n s t r a t i n g , at the s a m e time, the place of art and its
perception in the m o d e l of historical cognition, subjected to the
ideals of directness a n d the stirring of historical imagination.
D a r / u s z Czaya
Image a n d R e a l i s m . Notes C o n c e r n i n g B a c o n
This text was written on the m a r g i n of a Polish translation of
Conversaf/ons и#? Franc/s B a c o n . 8nvfa//ry of f a c f by D .
Sylvester. O n e of the m o s t frequent t h e m e s in Bacon's state­
m e n t s is his conception of painting, the key being realism. T h e
a u t h o r tries to reconstruct a n d render m o r e precise the ,,new
realism" proposed by the artist. He refers it to the dual
c o m p r e h e n s i o n of the category of m i m e s i s in Plato a n d Aristotle,
and confronts it with Bacon's opinions about the imitative duties
of painting. In its ultimate consequences, the realism expanded
by Bacon transcends far beyond aesthetics and remains meta­
physical.
Huber/ CzacnowsA;
M i r a c u l o u s Photographs
On m a n y sites of contemporary M a r i a n revelations, p h o t o g ­
raphs c o m p r i s e one of the most interesting of the assorted
m i r a c u l o u s signs of the s a c r u m . Apparently, s o m e of the

222

subsequently developed pictures d e p i c t the s a c r u m , w h i c h
a s s u m e s various forms: from irregular w h i t e rays a n d the Host,
to the figure of J o h n Paul II and even the face of God the Father.
T h o u s a n d s of pilgrims present at the sites of the miracles are
c o n v i n c e d abut the veracity of their experiences, an attitude
which, to a considerable degree, shapes their religiosity. T h e y
perceive a photographed miracle as proof of the truth of the faith
and G o d , in accordance with the principle, still universal in folk
mentality, that a p h o t o g r a p h cannot lie.

5wa K/etof
The Most Holy Heart of Jesus. Scenes from t h e Life of
a Symbol
The article discusses the changeability of the meaning of the
visual s y m b o l u p o n the example of the symbolic depiction of
Jesus, k n o w n as the Most Holy Heart. Its d e c i p h e r i n g , conduc­
ted u p o n n u m e r o u s levels, c h a n g e s d e p e n d i n g on the cultural,
social, and historical context in w h i c h the d e p i c t i o n appears.
This religious symbol, whose tradition dates back to the Middle
Ages, b e c a m e involved in politics, a n d to a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e
a s s u m e d t h e role of the visual s i g n of Catholic f u n d a m e n t a l i s m .
In turn, the aesthetic d i m e n s i o n of the depictions, whose
majority is rejected by art as a s y m p t o m of par e x c e l l e n c e kitsch,
d e t e r m i n e d its reception to s u c h a degree that the religious
interpretation was no longer possible: images of the M o s t Holy
Heart b e c a m e the carrier of caricature-like simplified meanings,
and the visual symbol changed into a stereotype.

Дло/ze/ P/bfr Kbwakk/
On the Pre-history of the Symbol
The author characterises the m o s t significant s t a g e s in the
d e v e l o p m e n t of the symbolic, Initially, cultural values were
devoid of the status of a s y m b o l a n d r e m a i n e d a n i m m a n e n t
c o m p o n e n t of the existence a n d activity of archaic m a n .
Symbols appeared in cultures w h i c h had at their d i s p o s a l
a dually defined i m a g e of the world. In order to justify this thesis,
t h e author refers to historical poetics and presents p r e m e t a p horical forms of being in the w o r l d . T h e oldest forms of m a g i c are
represented by m e t a m o r p h o s e s , w h i c h are c o n n e c t e d with
thinking that identifies assorted classes of objects. T r a c e s of
m e t a m o r p h o s e s c a n be d i s c o v e r e d in t r a n s m i s s i o n s of folklore
speaking about the transformation of cultural heroes, in religious
views c o n c e r n i n g m e t e m p s y c h o s i s , a n d in early philosophical
conceptions about motion and c h a n g e .
M d e t a m o r p h i c m a g i c was s u p p l a n t e d by thinking in catego­
ries of c o m p a r i s i o n s . It was comparison w h i c h for first time
revealed the necessity of evaluation, a n d d i s t i n g u i s h e d the
ontological relation of mutual d e p e n d e n c i e s .
The function of s y m b o l i s i n g to the metaphor, w h i c h is
a conventional c h a n g e in the characteristic of given objects. T h e
m e t a p h o r does not serve a m a g i c a l identification of objects and
their m e a n i n g but leads to their minute distinction. T h e author is
of the opinion that the symbolic a n d the existence of the ideative
sphere of v a l u e s c o m p r i s e a p r o b l e m facing anthropologists and
their exegetic thought; this is probably the reason w h y as such it
did not exist in archaic culture.

JacWpa И/а/б
Gilgamesh a n d His Star
For four a n d a half millennia, the epic of G i l g a m e s h fascinates
with the fantastic adventures of its hero. W h a t does the
G i l g a m e s h p h e n o m e n o n consist of? T h i s u n u s u a l tale w o u l d not
have survived forso long if it d i d not contain a t i m e l e s s m e a n i n g :
the rebellion against d e a t h . A l t h o u g h Ihe s a g e s , shamans, a n d
priests of all eras tell us that s u c h defiance is senseless, w e
naively hope that G i l g a m e s h will succeed.

His failure is twofold: G i l g a m e s h does not w i n immortality nor
does he experience spiritual transformation. He disobeys all
teachers of life, and remains a v a n q u i s h e d hero. This defeat is
also part of our humanity, a n d despite the abyss of time
G i l g a m e s h is o n e of us.

Mon/'ka S z n a j d e r m a n
T h e A n g e l in Popular Imagination
T h e author d e a l s with religious beliefs and images which,
usually ignored by a n t h r o p o l o g y , constitute a curious collage
blending the religiosity of the A g e of A q u a r i u s with traditional folk
religiosity; she d o e s so u p o n the e x a m p l e of popular and thriving
angelology. A t the s a m e time, the article proposes the thesis that
this unique r e n a s c e n c e of a belief in angels, with which w e deal
predominantly (albeit not solely) in present-day A m e r i c a n p o p u ­
lar culture, is closely c o n n e c t e d with religious sensitivity, the
angel is a living form of c o n t e m p o r a r y popular religious imagina­
tion. T h e w o r l d of angels has c o m e back; furthermore, it has
a c c o m p l i s h e d this feat only in an outwardly c h a n g e d form.
Actually, m a n y old beliefs c o n c e r n i n g its nature a n d function
have survived a n d inherited the legacy of theology a n d the
a p o c r y p h s . T o d a y , m a n needs the angel as m u c h as he did in
past centuries.

Joanna To/carska-Bak/r
T h e Prayer of the E l e m e n t s . A T i b e t a n Buddhist W o o d c u t
T h e text outlines the cultural context of the w o o d c u t in
Buddhist art of the Great Tibet region (Tibet proper, Nepal, a n d
North India). T h e author inquires Into the purposefulness of
applying the t e r m ,,art" in reference to Buddhist painting,
sculpture, a n d w o o d c u t s . She presents the theology of depic­
tions a n d the so-called effective m e a n s (Sanskrit: upaya ) of
Dharma, the Buddhist t e a c h i n g , a n d proposes her o w n clas­
sification of T i b e t a n w o o d c u t s . Finally, the article cites details
c o n c e r n i n g the preparation of the matrix and the m a k i n g copies
as well as the c e r e m o n y of c o n s e c r a t i n g the prints.

И/о/с/есл M/chera
B o d y a n d Imagination
T h i s text is c o m p o s e d of three scenarios for the television
series B o d y a n d Imagination w h i c h W . M i c h e r a directed in
1996-1997 for Polish Television. T h e series (a total of twelve
episodes) deals with the history a n d anthropology of imagination,
and is an e x a m p l e of popularisation w h i c h uses forms proper for
artistic p r o g r a m m e s . T h e p r e s e n t e d scenarios: To B e a tVoman,
Го Be а М а л , Л Ш с / а / F a c e are p r e c e d e d by brief c o m m e n t s on
the anthropological understanding of imagination and the popu­
larisation of s c i e n c e .
Krysfyna Czem/
Token
For ages, the tattoo w a s a universal w a y of decorating the body
a n d granting a person distinction and significance. T h e author
presents n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s of the application of the tattoo and
subsequently d i s c u s s e s the painless and bloodless Tattoos by
Z b i g n i e w Bajek in w h i c h the author himself becomes the object.
In ensuing n u m e r o u s photographic self-portraits, Bajek s h o w s
slides of assorted w o r l d - k n o w n paintings upon his white painted
face. In this manner, the latter b e c o m e s a living c a n v a s for
c o m p o s i t i o n s by B o s c h , D ü r e r , Brueghel or Dali. T h e author
interprets the activity of the artist involving his o w n face, and
contrasts it to i.a. the tradition of self-portraits, including those by
W i t k a c y or Tne P///ow B o o k by G r e e n a w a y . In an age of bloody
experiments, the Bajek p h o t o g r a m m e s are a safe example of the
artistic u s a g e of the body. Bajek d e m o n s t r a t e s traces of art u p o n
the body, the tokens of culture a n d its illumination. In doing so, he
proves that art d o e s not exist w i t h o u t a recipient and that the art

w o r k requires an e m b o d i m e n t a n d b e c o m e s subjected to a sui
generis m e t e m p s y c h o s i s by p r o p o s i n g a s c r e e n projection of
h u m a n thoughts, experiences, and sensitivity.
Czes/aw ЯоЬогуск/
T h e Art and P e r s u a s i o n of S o - C a l l e d Billboards
T h e article e x a m i n e s billboards as a n element of c o m ­
munication in its persuasive function and as an e l e m e n t of the
visual surrounding. T h e aesthetic stratum of billboards m a k e s
use of p o s t m o d e r n c o n c e p t s of the fine arts. T h i s role of
billboards in Poland deserves further, m o r e detailed analysis.
Marc;n S z p o * o
Poster-clasm or an U n t a m e d C a m p a i g n
This analysis of the p h e n o m e n o n of d a m a g i n g election
c a m p a i g n posters is c o n d u c t e d upon the basis of material
gathered during the 1995 presidential e l e c t i o n . T h e destruction
of posters is closely c o n n e c t e d with their semiotic aspect.
A d a m a g e d poster also carries a certain m e s s a g e , w h i c h is
usually diametrically different from the o n e intended by its
authors. T h e p r e s e n t e d analysis is f o u n d e d on proposals of
deciphering the newly p r o d u c e d c o m m u n i q u e s . T h e destruction
of depictions - most universal in the p h e n o m e n o n under
e x a m i n a t i o n - is a practice frequently e n c o u n t e r e d in culture,
starting with the distant past. D a m a g e of a substitute is the root
of n u m e r o u s forms of activity from the d o m a i n of negative magic,
w h e r e the person of the e n e m y is s u p p l a n t e d by his depiction.
T h e conviction about the p o s s e s s i o n of the ,,might" and
properties of the portrayed person via his i m a g e led to Byzantine
and Protestant iconoclasm a n d executions c o n d u c t e d In effigie.
T h e destruction of posters w a s universal, a n d pertained to all
candidates. It w a s performed by incurring d a m a g e to s y m ­
bolically m a r k e d fragments of the depiction (face, eyes, mouth
) and the addition of symbols (star of D a v i d , five-armed star,
h a m m e r and sickle, swastika) or annotations of various size.
T h e posters were also dirtied or defaced with d r a w i n g s , in­
cluding vulgar ones. A specific form of destruction w a s the use of
stickers s h o w i n g political rivals. In certain instances, the d a m a ­
ge s t e m m e d from playful sources, but the majority of cases
expressed aggression a n d animosity t o w a r d s the depicted
person.

Oorofa Guf
Internet Ethnography
T h e article inaugurates a series of texts by the author
pertaining to the Internet, Its philosophy, e t h n o g r a p h y , v o c a b u ­
lary, etc.
Jaros/aw /of-OmźycW
T h e Urbl et Orbi B o a r d G a m e
T h e author describes g a m e s In w h i c h the players m o v e their
p a w n s on the b o a r d along municipal transportation lines (the
underground, trams...). T h e purpose is to b e c o m e acquainted
with interesting objects in the given ,,town". Within this context,
the author recalls the classification of g a m e s p r o p o s e d by R.
Caillois - agon, alea, and mimicry. M e n t i o n is also m a d e of the
African g a m e of s u m a n g o l o w h o s e participants ,,play in the
w o r l d of the future". In c o n c l u s i o n , D r u ż y c k i d r a w s attention to
the fact that the players create a real s p a c e , regardless w h e t h e r
It is L o n d o n or St. Petersburg, together with its actual spatial
configuration, or a mythical ,,world of the future".
J e r u s a l e m J e r u s a l e m . A n Interview with N a r m i M i ­
chejda
In 1989, Narmi Michejda, a molecular biologist by training,
started taking photographs of places c o n n e c t e d with Jewish
culture (i.a. Jerusalem, cemeteries). T h i s conversation with
Maria J ę c z m y k and M a ł g o r z a t a
Baranowska
(literary critic) focuses p r e d o m i n a n t l y on p h o t o g r a p h y although

22J

Michejda also talks about her passion a n d departure from
science towards t h e humanities a n d poetry. ,.Photography a n d
painting c o m p r i s e only a certain stage, necessary i n order to g e t
e v e n closer to poetry itself. T h e s e forgotten 'beings' p o s s e s s
m o r e a n d more concealed faces (.,.). I b e g a n to s m u g g l e into the
b i o c h e m i c a l prison a form of a l c h e m y - Baudelaire, Nerval,
Kafka, Gorges o r m y b e l o v e d Cioran. In this manner, I betrayed
the natural sciences physically a n d probably spiritually, a l t h o u g h
I remained loyal to t h e m , albeit i n a new way. Biochemistry is
adescription of life and death. I selected the other half for m y new
loyalty. A s usual, it b e c a m e apparent that here too - o n the 'ice
flow' of pain a n d death - the t o n g u e fails".
Afagda/эла 5/eramska
Is this the vision of doomsday a n d paradise afterwards?
A n Analysis of o n e of the S y m b o l s of M a n ' s Destiny that
A p p e a r in J e w i s h Cult Art in t h e Polish Territories
In the article t h e author will analyse the images w h i c h
a p p e a r e d in J e w i s h cult art i n t h e territories of central w e s t e r n
Poland at t h e beginning of t h e nineteenth century, a n d were
found until t h e turn of the twentieth century. It was a scene
depicting sheep as they were c o m i n g out of a s h e d a n d m o v i n g
towards a well. This picture can be found firstly on t o m b s , but has
often b e e n found as a decoration on aronof ha-todea/?. In this
analysis, based on biblical texts and fragments of prayers w h i c h
were m a d e during t h e holidays of Rosh H a S h a n a a n d Yom
Kippur, t h e author will try to prove that the scene is actually the
vision of D o o m s d a y a n d the eternal paradise afterwards. S h e will
also attempt to trace the g e n e s i s of this i m a g e to areas of P o l a n d .
Sondan Poc/e/
Seven G a t e s of J e r u s a l e m
This text discusses The S e i / е л Gafes o/^erusa/em, a n oratory
by Krzysztof Penderecki, first performed in J e r u s a l e m in January

1997 and in Warsaw in M a r c h 1997. T h e a u t h o r was inspired by
the Faith a n d Divinity in t h e W o r d , r e v e a l e d i n t h e Bible (a
frequent occurrence in the works by Penderecki), in t h i s case
- in the Psalms. A l l composers w h o follow t h e e x a m p l e of
Monteverdi by writing music to texts of the P s a l m s a n d
proposing a n interpretation of their c o n t e n t s a n d poetic images
in some m a n n e r refer to his arch-models. T h e s a m e holds true
for Penderecki whose patron is also t h e genius of Monteverdi,
The author maintains that T7?e Seven Gafes о / J e r u s a / e m c a n be
regarded as the crowning of the c o m p o s e r ' s hitherto experien­
ces,
Zof/a Rydef (died 1997) w a s a n outstanding Polish p h o t o g r a p ­
her. T h e best k n o w n series of her p h o t o g r a p h s include L/ff/e Мал
(the world of children), Т л е LVor/d of* Emof/on and /лтад/лайол
(photo m o n t a g e s dealing with m o t h e r h o o d a n d t h e trepidation of
old age), Т л е /лА'л/гу o f O/sfanf Pafns (metaphorical depictions
of h u m a n life) a n d Л S o c W o g / с а / Record. W e publish two
Opinions concerning Zofia Rydet - by U r s z u l a C z a r t o r y ­
s k a and A n n a B e a t a B o h d z i e w i c z - a s well as her o w n
statements c o n c e r n i n g primarily Л 5 о с / о / о р ю а / Record. A dis­
cussion o n these works places e m p h a s i s o n t h e ethical mes­
s a g e a c c o m p a n y i n g the p h o t o g r a p h s a n d their author's d o c u ­
mentary passion.
W e also present t h e soundtrack from the o u t s t a n d i n g film
about Zofia Rydet W n / r y о/ D/sfanf P a f ń s directed by A n ­
drzej Różycki.
The group of texts c o n n e c t e d with the anthropologist B r o n i ­
sław
M a l i n o w s k i includes a consecutive fragment of
correspondence w i t h Elsie M a s s o n , his first wife, p r e p a r e d by
theirdaughter Helena Wayne (T7?e Sfory о/Afamage), a letter by
B r o n i s ł a w Malinowski written during his first stay i n London to
Aniela Z a g ó r s k a , a relative a n d translator of J o s e p h Conrad.

W POPRZEDNICH NUMERACH
Problematyce symbolu poświecony byt numer 3/1998 „Kontekstów", kulturze masowej nr 4/1988, filmowi i fotografii
nr 3-4/1992, mitowi i literaturze nr 3-4/1995.
O symbolu w „Kontekstach" pisali m . i n . :
w numerze 1/1980, Z b i g n i e w Benedyktowicz, ЛЛгсед #wzde, /fwabyOm? (Y"W/grzo/wWogü rg/fgf;¿/o/gMomffm/og:i W/f^ry);
w numerze 3/1988: Zbigniew Benedyktowicz, 2ymW w efMogra/w, S. A w i e r i n c e w , ¿ y m W , Jurij Ł o t m a n , S y m W и' jyj/wwe
Wfwry, M i c h a ł K l i n g e r , 6 } ' m W w feo/ogń, Paul T i l l i c h , Zraczewf f шргдмчаДтчен/б j y r n W / ге/УдУ/нусл, M i r c e a Eliade,
Mg/ć%WogfCzne wwagf о б а а Ы ш уулмбоЯЛл reWgfpzg/,'
w numerze 3-4/1992: Dariusz Czaja, S y m W
Uwag; n#A%WogfczrZ€, D o n Fredericksen, „Ддг Уо&ш";
w numerze 2/1995: W i e s ł a w Juszczak, O длггоро/одн ; aymWw, w t y m numerze o p u b l i k o w a l i ś m y również rozmowę
redakcyjną O wzfropo/ogw f j y / n W w ;
O fotografii w „Kontekstach" pisali m i n . :
w numerze 4/1979: Aleksander Jackowski, /для AfłdgrsJWfgo w/Wzewf az/wW Wowg/;
w numerze 1-2/1986: Krzysztof Kubiak, W o W / x o g r a / л n a g r o W - y ;
w numerze 1-4/1987: R o c h Sulima, fofogro/Ia cAfopów pokif'c/z;
w numerze 3/1990: Aleksander Jackowski, forfr?/ W z t / g g o /агы [o Zofii Rydet];
w numerze 3-4/1992: Małgorzata Baranowska, foczfdw&z m a j o w a //bfogra/fa wczw¿ Sławomir Sikora, Fofogra/wz - p a r n i e
- уууобгдглщ A n n a Beata Bohdziewicz, foWzfeMmt czyff ркмелАд о болсы .fwwwo, Józef Szymańczyk, Vfjfcm ybfogro/gm
(wywiad przeprowadzony przez A n n ę Engelking, cz. I), fotografie i teksty Mariusza Wieczorkowskiego oraz Ryszard Ciarka,
odczwwac, myj/ec. #ozmow%z z 7acA/gm O/gaz&f'm;
w numerze 1/1993: Józef Szymańczyk, /gafem _/bfogrq/fw (dokończenie);
w numerze 1-2/1994: Hubert Czachowski, O/ixogrq/н / ef/zogra/w, Sławomir Sikora, f b w g r a / m ar/iyftw w/ftff. Fofogro/Za
/ *»f;
w poprzednim numerze 1-2/1997: z a m i e ś c i l i ś m y blok tekstów poświęconych Bronisławowi Malinowskiemu: Grażyna
Kubica-Heller, jpoz&omf z cortq Brorfúfowa Mo/fnowjtfggo i^ego 6¿ogrq/gm, Rozmowa z //g/ewg Жау/гс, Rozmowa z М'слде/е/п
Kowigiem, Helena W a y n e ( M a l i n o w s k a ) , Wpfyw
ма zyc'e / ¿/ztf/o ^ r o n W a n / a Ma/ma^s-Afćgo, Helena Wayne
( M a l i n o w s k a ) , Я ш о п а m a ^ g ^ r w a . 6i\$ry 8гол W a w a Ma/wowjJtfggo / ^/jfg Ma.fja/i oraz Terence W r i g h t , /Wropo/og yato
дг/yj/o.' yb/ogra/fg Afa/mowftfggo z ГгоблоЫои/.

224

Cytat

“Summary of articles / Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1997 t.51 z.3-4,” Cyfrowa Etnografia, Dostęp 1 lipca 2022, https://cyfrowaetnografia.pl/items/show/5879.

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