Summary of articles/ Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1965 t.19 z.1

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Summary of articles/ Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1965 t.19 z.1

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Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1965 t.19 z.1; s.65-67

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Instytut Sztuki PAN

Data

1965

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oai:cyfrowaetnografia.pl:publication:4802

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application/pdf

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ang.
ros.

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oai:cyfrowaetnografia.pl:4458

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Q U A R T E R L Y P U B L I S H E D B Y T H E A R T I N S T I T U T E OF T H E P O L I S H A C A D E M Y OF SCIENCES
Mo. 1

Y E A R BOOK X I X

Vera Hasalowa — T H E Ż Y W I E C
GROUP A N D
PICTURES P A I N T E D O N G L A S S F R O M T H E M O ­
R A V I A N - C Z E C H BORDER C O U N T R Y
The article discusses pictures painted o n glass about
which Jozef G r a b o w s k i w r o t e i n the periodical " A r k a ­
dy" i n 1939, decribing them as t h e Ż y w i e c group. A f t e r
examining a v e r y large number o f pictures of this
type (blue) i n the museums of Czech Silesia (Opava,
Ostrava,
F r y d e k - M i s t e k , Frenstat
and others)
the
authoress of the present article came to the conclu­
sion that they were connected w i t h two other groups,
very similar i n character (pastel and coloured, m u l t i ­
coloured), and points to the p r o b a b i l i t y o f most of the
pictures i n question coming f r o m one and the same
workshop, w h i c h she assumes was i n a w e l l - k n o w n
centre of pilgrimages, that is, a place i n w h i c h there
was trade i n devotional objects and pictures, namely
the t o w n of Frydek (on the border M o r a v i a and the
Cieszyn region). This is testified by the v e r y large
number o f pictures that are k n o w n to have come f r o m
Frydek and v i c i n i t y and the fact that people remember
the workshop there and i t is referred to i n literature
on the subject (Cernohorsky, V y d r a , Boucek). The
authoress goes on to show that the workshop, which i n
all p r o b a b i l i t y existed t i l l the end of the 19th century,
perhaps even longer, was founded at the meeting
point o f three regions where painting on glass was
practiced: the Silesian, M o r a v i a n and Slovak regions.
The authoress makes a v e r y detailed study of the M o ­
r a v i a n region, of w h i c h l i t t l e is k n o w n so far, p o i n t ­
ing to the numerous connections between the products
of the workshop i n F r y d e k and the paintings on glass
done i n the M o r a v i a n region i n the middle of the
19th century, p a r t i c u l a r l y some of the paintings done
by artists of the M o r a v i a n region. The Ż y w i e c group
is a collection of typical Frydek paintings of the blue
group, b r o u g h t to the villages i n the v i c i n i t y of Ż y w i e c
by
pilgrims from
F r y d e k by wandering
pedlars
who took their wares f r o m house to house. So it is
pretty certain that the paintings on glass f o u n d i n the
villages near Ż y w i e c came from t w o sources — from
Frydek and f r o m an u n k n o w n workshop that was
somewhere on the t e r r i t o r i t y of today's Poland and
w h i c h was o n l y local is scope and was m a r k e d for its
folk
character.

Aleksander Jackowski - CONTEMPORARY F O L K A R T
REMARKS FOLLOWING THE LÓDŻ E X H I B I T I O N
I n the contemporary village there are various kinds
of creative art existing side by side.
1. art based on the t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of folk culture,
destined f o r the artist's o w n use i n his own m i l i e u ,
t h a t is, art f u l l y corresponding t o the' usual definition
of folk a r t ;
2. art based on the t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of folk culture,
destined f o r customers outside the village m i l i e u
( „ e x p o r t " to the towns), that is w o r k having ever
weaker links w i t h the village milieu and sometimes
contrary to its likings.
3. art corresponding to the present taste i n r u r a l and
suburban milieus and destined for those milieus, that
is, art of the k i n d mentioned i n point 1. created i n
conditions where folk culture is losing its specific
character, i n a situation where the artistic tastes of
the m i l i e u are s t i l l the same, but are being influenced
by the i n f i l t r a t i o n of patterns from other milieus, from
the suburban areas of towns (so-called ,,feast-day ort").
A p a r t from these kinds of art, there are also others
i n the r u r a l areas that cannot be placed i n the
categories of folk art, for instance, the w o r k of the
„ p r i m i t i v e s " , that of children and of amateur artists,
that is, a l l the kinds of art that represent either
extremely i n d i v i d u a l artistic work, or w o r k where
the artists copy accepted patterns, keeping to the

1965

various artistic conventions prevailing i n the various
milieus.
Out of a l l these different kinds of art to be .t'ound
in the countryside today, the art based on the t r a d i ­
tional patterns (point 1) is becoming ever less popular
i n the r u r a l milieu, w h i c h fact is causing its gradual
disappearance, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n fields where i t cannot
compete w i t h industrial goods, for instance — smithery,
furniture making, clothing, etc.
Weaving still remains a v e r y levely field o f folk art.
The village people s t i l l make various kinds of decorations
and flowers from coloured tissue paper for their own
use and also „ p i s a n k i " (painted eggs for Easter) and,
to some extend, pottery too. A l l the other folk art
products are today destined for the urban customer
The existing forms of care over folk art are, i t is true,
checking the process of its disappearance, but a definite
artistic regression is evident i n a l l fields of folk art,
which cannot be attributed t o the fact t h a t the best folk
artists are ageing and dying and not to the lack of new
young artists w h o are just as talented, but to the fact
that the folk artist of today does not produce his w o r k
for his own milieu.
The mentality, consciousness and artistic vision of
the contemporary man is different. Tradition, w h i c h
formerly provided permanent foundations for folk art,
has not such a strong influence toaay, even on the artists
who consciously base their w o r k on i t . This is conducive
to the development of individual searchings and calls
for more personal inventiveness on the part of the
artist. B u t the development of i n d i v i d u a l i t y is not always
accompanied by artistic value. The self-taught artist, w h o
does not usually have much idea of art, becomes rather
helpless i f he tries to depart from tradition and depend
on his own ideas.
The situation is a specific one as regards carving,
w h i c h has always been less dependent on the artistic
traditions of the milieu. I n this field of art, the factor
of i n d i v i d u a l inventiveness has always played the biggest
role and today too, i t is decisive i n producing the best
folk carvings. The number of carvers is growing and
the artistic level of their w o r k has improved d u r i n g the
last dozen or so years, w h i c h is, to some extent, due to
the mass purchases of these works by C P L i A (Folk A r t
Industry Cooperative) and the competitions and e x h i b i ­
tions organized by this folk art cooperative.
I n the present situation, w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l folk art
getting less popular in the r u r a l communities and the
cosequent reduced demand for it, the problem of caring
for this art is extremely important as an essential
condition making the production of folk products possible.
The institutions taking care of folk art (CPLiA. the
Ministry of Culture and A r t , the museums) are taking
the place of w h a t formerly shaped this art, namely, the
traditions o f a given m i l i e u , and are thus guaranteeing
the maintenance of a high artistic level and also a market
for folk art products.
This assistance has, i t is true, maintained and even
re-activated some t r a d i t i o n a l techniques, but i t is not
able to check the regressive process taking place i n folk
art.
But the decline of this traditional folk art is not
synonymous w i t h the liquidation o i the specific art of the
villages and suburbs (see point 3). This art is aestheti­
cally separate from contemporary professional art. but
it does show some links w i t h the former ..feast-day art".
Although i t cannot compate w i t h the former f o l k a r t
from the artistic point of view, i t is not altogether
deprived of aesthetic values.
Maria Przeździccka
CRACOW

— EXHIBITION

OF

ICONS I N

Discussing the e x h i b i t i o n of 15th—19th century icons
from the M a ł o p o l s k a region, the authoress of the pre­
sent article draws attention to the great variety and
specific i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f these paintings due both to
the fact that they were produced i n an area constituting

65

the m e e t i n g place o f East and West, and to the process
of the L a t i n i s a t i o n o f rites and the influence o f the
ioons p r o d u c e d b y t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g S ą c z g r o u p .
T h e v a r i e t y o f tendencies and trends depended o n
the education and talents o f the painter, the patterns
he f o l l o w e d , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e c l e r g y a n d t h e
t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c c e p t e d f o r m s . I t also d e p e n d e d o n t h e
d e s t i n a t i o n o f t h e i c o n p a i n t i n g . T h e e x h i b i t i o n also
shows v a r i o u s k i n d s o f f o l k icons, even pictures o n
b a n n e r s a n d crosses c a r r i e d i n p r o c e s s i o n s .
Speaking
about the instructions o f the clergy and the t r a d i t i o ­
n a l l y accepted f o r m s , the authoress d r a w s
attention
to t h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s n o t u s u a l l y a l l o w e d t o i n t r o ­
duce Gothic o r n a m e n t a t i o n i n t o t h e O r t h o d o x churches,
the accepted f o r m s being Renaissance and baroque. I n
1970, i t w a s o f f i c i a l l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e i c o n o s t a s i s
was
not e s s e n t i a l i n t h e O r t h o d o x C h u r c h . I f i t w a s p l a c e d
t h e r e , i t h a d to c o n f o r m t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n , i n
w h i c h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i c o n o g r a p h i e a r t f o l l o w e d a set,
formal
schema. T h i s
makes
i t rather
difficult
to
establish
the dates o f some icons.
The destination o f the icons i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r cha­
r a c t e r and a r t i s t i c range. T h e iconostasis, being the
most p r o m i n e n t l y displayed, had to meet the highest
r e q u i r e m e n t s . A n d i t is h e r e t h a t w e see t h e s t r o n g e s t
and longest maintenance of the iconographie and f o r ­
mal
r i g o u r s e s t a b l i s h e d at o n e t i m e f o r t h e E a s t g r n
C h u r c h . I n scenes f r o m t h e l i v e s o f s a i n t s , t h e a r t i s t s
had more freedom i n i n t r o d u c i n g new elements. The
icon painters of the M a ł o p o l s k a r e g i o n i n the 16th—18th
centuries were m o s t l y t o w n s f o l k o f P o l i s h or Russian
origin, more rarely they were monks o f Basilian friars.
T h e m a i n centres o f icon p a i n t i n g w e r e : Rybotycze,
Przemyśl, Jaworów,
Żółkiew
and the monastery
at
Poczajów. The painters w h o w o r k e d f o r the church
either collaborated w i t h guilds or got their
orders
f r o m monasteries
o r l a y clergy o n the p r i n c i p l e o f
family
ties.
T h e r e is a l a c k o f d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e
S ą c z icon painters, b u t there are m a n y
arguments,
and examples of t h e i r a c t i v i t y , t e s t i f y i n g to the fact
that this g r o u p d i d exist. I n t h e i r paintings the h a b i t
of
following
a great
variety of patterns
makes it
d i f f i c u l t to establish the date w h e n t h e y w e r e p r o ­
duced. I n considering the S ą c z group, the authoress
o f t h e a r t i c l e says t h a t t h i s g r o u p w a s f o r m e d b y l a y
artists w h o were not o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y l i n k e d w i t h m o ­
nasteries o f the clergy of the O r t h o d o x C h u r c h , and
t h a t these painters started to take patterns f r o m the
art o f the O r t h o d o x and L a t i n churches o f various
periods
earlier
than
the
painters
working for
the
O r t h o d o x c h u r c h , a n d used t h e s e p a t t e r n s m o r e e x ­
tensively.
A n a l y s i n g t h e f o r m a l s o l u t i o n s a p p l i e d , she p o i n t s t o
the great v a r i e t y o f influences o n f o l k icon p a i n t i n g ,
Latin
a m o n g others, the i n f l u e n c e of c o n t e m p o r a r y
devotional pictures and Russian metal ornaments.
To
s u m up, the authoress states once again t h a t
i t is d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h t h e c h r o n o l o g y a n d w o r k m a n ­
ship o f the icon paintings, f o r the same painters p r o ­
duced
pictures
destined
for
various
purposes
and
therefore had a d i f f e r e n t approach i n d i f f e r e n t icons
towards the t r a d i t i o n a l elements b o r o w e d f r o m Russo- B y z a n t i n e a r t , L a t i n a r t a n d P o l i s h f o l k a r t . (12—16).

Anna Dobrzańska-Pawlicka — PAINTING ON COTTAGE
WALLS I N THE VILLAGE OF SAMOKLĘSKI, JASŁO
DISTRICT
T h e authoress begins w i t h some general
remarks
on the custom of p a i n t i n g the w a l l s o f cottages w i t h
c a l c i m i n e o r l i m e , a n d t h e n deals i n d e t a i l w i t h the
p a i n t e d o r n a m e n t a t i o n to be f o u n d o n t h e w a l l s o f
the cottages i n the v i l l a g e o f S a m o k l ę s k a . T h e o r n a ­
m e n t a t i o n is u s u a l l y o f a m i x e d k i n d ; t h e f r a m e w o r k
o f t h e c o t t a g e is g e n e r a l l y p a i n t e d w i t h w h i t e l i m e ,
sometimes w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f a b l u e tint, and some­
t i m e s i t is w h i t e w a s h e d i n stripes. S o m e of the cottages
have t h e i r f r o n t w a l l s p a i n t e d w h i t e a l l o v e r and the
gable p a r t i n stripes o r perhaps i n a d o t t e d p a t t e r n .
The doors are decorated w i t h patterns p a i n t e d i n l i m e .

M o s t o f these p a t t e r n s are s t y l i z e d p l a n t f o r m s . Geo­
m e t r i c a l patterns are m o r e r a r e l y m e t w i t h , f o r i n ­
stance, patterns
o f d o t s , l i n e s , etc.
T h e composition of the o r n a m e n t a t i o n depends on
t h e s h a p e a n d size o f t h e d o o r w h i c h is t o be p a i n t e d .
As r e g a r d s the l o n g - s h a p e d f a r m b u i l d i n g s i n the
village o f S a m o k l ę s k a ,
t h e d o m i n a n t n o t e is
large
vertical patterns
on the doors f o r m i n g
a
compact
compositional w h o l e w i t h the w h i t e w a s h e d f r a m e w o r k .
T h e p a i n t i n g t o be f o u n d o n t h e c o t t a g e s i n S a m o ­
k l ę s k a has n o t a n y l o n g t r a d i t i o n s . T h e b e g i n n i n g o f
t h i s c u s t o m can b e t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e y e a r 1910. T h e
p a i n t i n g is done e x c l u s i v e l y b y w o m e n , u s u a l l y before
E a s t e r . T h e r e a r c s i m i l a r w a l l p a i n t i n g s also i n s e v e r a l
villages i n the neighbourhood of S a m o k l ę s k a .
T h e p a i n t i n g is p u r e l y o r n a m e n t a l a n d has n o o t h e r
f u n c t i o n , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s i g n o f t h e cross.
Maria
Gutkowska-Rychlewska — PATTERNED
S A S H E S O F T H E 1 7 t h A N D 18th C E N T U R Y

NET

Net
sashes w e r e c o m m o n l y w o r n b y t h e P o l i s h
b u r g h e r s a n d n o b i l i t y i n the 17th a n d the f i r s t half o f
t h e 18th c e n t u r y . T h e t e c h n i q u e o f net lace w h i c h was
used i n t h e i r m a k i n g l a s t e d t i l l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e
20th century i n f o l k
art.
S i l k p a t t e r n e d sashes, a b o u t t h r e e m e t r e s l o n g a n d
a b o u t 50 c m w i d e , m o s t l y r e d a n d c r i m s o n , s o m e t i m e s
adorned w i t h gold o r silver, w e r e tied o n over
zupan
a n d kontusz
(over -coat w o r n b y P o l i s h nobles). Cheaper
woolen or
s e m i - s i l k sashes w e r e w o r n
already
in
t h e 1 7 t h c e n t u r y , a n d i n t h e second h a l f o f t h e 1 8 t h
c e n t u r y c h e a p e r sashes o f t h i s k i n d w e r e also w o r n
by
the peasants l i v i n g near C r a c o w .
Barbara Kołodziejska — E X H I B I T I O N
OF
PAPER-CUTS IN THE REGIONAL MUSEUM
LONA
GÓRA

ŁOWICZ
AT ZIE­

This e x h i b i t i o n was a display of the w o r k o f Zofia
F o k s , b o r n i n 1902 n e a r Ł o w i c z , w h e r e she l i v e d u n t i l
1945. S h e has n o w b e e n l i v i n g i n t h e v i l l a g e o f C h w a l i n , S u l e c h ó w d i s t r i c t , n e a r Z i e l o n a G ó r a , f o r 19 y e a r s .
Z o f i a Foks l e a r n t to m a k e paper-cuts f r o m her m o t h e r
a n d u p t i l l a b o u t 1930 m a d e a l o t o f t h e m f o r h e r s e l f
a n d h e r n e i g h b o u r s . B u t a f t e r t h a t she s t o p p e d m a k i n g
t h e m . T h e 107 p a p e r - c u t s o n v i e w a t t h e p r e s e n t e x ­
h i b i t i o n a r e t h e f i r s t she has d o n e since she g a v e i t
u p t h i r t y y e a r s ago. S h e uses t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Ł o w i c z
p a t t e r n s : p a p e r - c u t s d e p i c t i n g v a r i o u s subjects, and i n
stars.
the f o r m of bands and
A n a l y s i n g the v a r i o u s f o r m s o f the paper-cuts, the
a u t h o r e s s p o i n t s to t h e i r d i f f e r e n t n e s s f r o m t h e t r a ­
d i t i o n a l Ł o w i c z p a p e r - c u t s , d u e to h e r h a v i n g l e f t h e r
the
n a t i v e m i l i e u , f o r o n e t h i n g , a n d also because
m a d e t h e p a p e r - c u t s n o t as a d e c o r a t i o n f o r h e r h o m e ,
but
as m u s e u m
exhibits.
Ewa
F r y ś - P i e t r a s z k o w a — T H E 21st A N D 22nd
VITY CRIB COMPETITIONS I N CRACOW

NATI­

D i s c u s s i n g t h e l a s t t w o C r i b C o m p e t i t i o n s i n 1963
a n d 1964, t h e a u t h o r e s s f i n d s t h a t t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f
t h e e v e n t has g r o w n t r e m e n d o u s l y o f l a t e . T h e m a x i ­
mum
n u m b e r o f c r i b - m a k e r s entering for the
first
15 c o m p e t i t i o n s w a s 40, w h i l e i n t h e l a s t o n e , 100
c r i b - m a k e r s s e n t i n 113 N a t i v i t y C r i b s .
A s regards the e v o l u t i o n o f the f o r m o f the cribs,
t h e t r e n d is t o w a r d s m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n , i n v i e w o f t h e
f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e u s e d as s o u v e n i r s a n d g i f t s . F o r t h e
same reasons, the p u p p e t
theatre f o r m
is b e c o m i n g
o b s o l e t e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e is a g r o w i n g t e n ­
dency towards jeweller's precision and a w e a l t h of
o r n a m e n t a t i o n . The c r i b - m a k e r s , i n seeking new f o r m s ,
are i n f l u e n c e d b y c u r r e n t events and celebrations. T h e
i n f l u e n c e o f t h e 600th a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e J a g i e l l o n i a n
U n i v e r s i t y c o u l d b e seen i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a r c h i ­
tectural elements f r o m the historical U n i v e r s i t y b u i l d ­
ings a n d the i n c l u s i o n of h i s t o r i c a l personalities i n the
cribs.

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Cytat

“Summary of articles/ Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1965 t.19 z.1,” Cyfrowa Etnografia, Dostęp 30 czerwca 2022, https://cyfrowaetnografia.pl/items/show/11396.

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