Summary of articles / Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1993 t.47 z.2

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Summary of articles / Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1993 t.47 z.2


Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1993 t.47 z.2, s.80


Instytut Sztuki PAN









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Z b i g n i e w R a s z e w s k i F R O M A NOTEBOOK
In these published fragments of notes and reflections, professor Zbigniew
Raszewski (1925-1922), a renowned theatre historian, concentrated his
attention on the phenomenon of creativity and the completed work, analysed
from the viewpoint of talent and in particular of virtuosity. The latter is
examined upon the basis of two extreme symptoms: the singer and the
architect. Another issue is freedom and arbitrariness in staging. Zbigniew
Raszewski considered i.a. the problem of the original and its subsequent
stagings, and the phenomenon of characteristic for the theatre in the past.
M a r c i n J a r n u s z k i e w i c z ABOUT T H E T H E A T R E AND FN CON­
In an interview held by Aleksander Jackowski, Marcin Jarnuszkiewicz talks
about his theatre which, modelled on the Middle Ages, is sacral. It is born out
of a fear of and respect for death but, at the same time, it attempts to tame
death on a daily basis... Jarnuszkiewicz declares his willingness to pursue an
amateur theatre which, as its very name indicates, is composed of theatre
lovers but which should be equipped with professional knowledge and
a theatrical workshop that every creator construes himself.
Jarnuszkiewicz also wishes to remain loyal to himself, to avoid lies and to
speak only about that what he regards as the most important. He perceives
creativity as a constant attempt to search, to transcend oneself and to reach
even further. To be an artist means to exist in a domain of values ascribed to
a given discipline and to life itself.
J o a n n a W a l a s z e k T H E TWO "NASTASYAS" O F A N D R Z E J
Andrzej Wajda staged two spectacles based on "The Idiot" by Dostoevsky.
The first was performed in 1977 in the Stary Theatre in Cracow under the title
„Nastasya Filipovna". It began with public rehearsals for which Wajda chose
the end scene in which Mishkin and Rogozhin (ill. 1) spend the night watching
over the corpse of Nastasya, murdered by the second of the two men. The
rehearsals which lasted from 30 to 120 minutes each, were conducted without
a ready stage adaptation and to a large extent were improvised. The stage
design and costumes by Krystyna Zachwatowicz played an important part in
the creatin of an appropriate mood.
The second "Nastasya", presented in 1989 in the Benisan Theatre in Tokyo,
was played in a similar interior. Nastasya and Mishkin (ill. 2 and 3) were
performed by Tamasaburo Bando, a celebrated Kabuki actor, who specializes
in female parts. After meeting him in Tokyo, at a time when he was playing the
lead in "Dame aux camelias", Wajda decided to restage the last scene. The
author of the article describes in full detail the truly outstanding performance.
She also supplements the statements made by the actor, Andrzej Wajda and
Krystyna Zachwatowicz (from the television film by J. Engler entitled "The
Roles of Tamasaburo Bando", 1991) by reporting on the work on the
spectacle, in which the great Japanese actor played his first male part.
Jan B e r d y s z a k THEATRE - "THEATRE"?
Existence is part of the genetically and culturally transmitted tehatre.
A combination of these two conditions makes it possible to discover and
situate the source of the theatre in a person. Berdyszak refers to the experiences
of the Oberammergau theatre where the actors are selected for each
performance due to their natural predispositions and traits, and always
prepare only for a given "part". In this case, we are dealing both with acting
and non-acting. In the course of his reflections the author notices that "the
theatre comes into being and exists in the special activity of a person and in
relation to him. It is provoked by reaction of the state of objects and the state
of places, the boundaries of which remain indistinct". The active and potential
place of the theatre is thus created. These situations require understanding but
also an open imagination. Berdyszak distinguishes three types of such
a theatre: the ephemeral theatre, the theatre of the intellect, the potential and
halted theatre. The author also observes that apart from producing situations
which stimulate the imagination, the theatre cannot exist without the
spectator, and recalls his own experiences. Finally. Berdyszak poses numerous
questions pertaining to the possibility of the variety of the theatre under
examination. The article ends with comments about the stage, curtain, the
essence of the question in art, and about the situation, state and provocation.
M a r c i n G i ż y c k i P E R F O R M A N C E A R T TODAY: T H E A M E R I ­
The categories of performance and performance art are blurred and contain
many phenomena. Despite the predictions made by certain critics, they remain
an unshaken part of present-day art. The author notes that the trend itself
underwent profound changes: the artists have altered, the phenomenon is
examined as a theory and presented at academic lectures and, finally,
performance has come closer to the theatre. The main domain of exploration is
now the artist's own body. The author refers primarily to three representatives
of the expansive current of performance: Karen Finley (predominantly
connected with body art), Annie Sprinkle (here the author discloses the
dilemnas of feminism) and Guillermo Gomez-Pefia, an artist born in Mexico
City (a par excellence postmodernist town owing to an undisturbed coexisten­
ce of various cultures) whose works recall the multi-cultural nature of the
Mexican-American borderline.
J a n u s z B y s z e w s k i ALONGSIDE EDUCATION AND ART
In the opinion of J. Byszewski, young people today are interested in the
question: how to live? Education and art can assist in finding a suitable answer.
Byszewski conducts creative workshops which take place in various places and




involve different persons. The decision to participate is made by every
candidate individually and consciously.
The workshop groups attempt to seek a solution to questions which are also
posed by contemporary society and culture (for instance, those concerning
global and local art education, the problems of "small homelands", the
"taming" of anonymous places connected with contemporary civilization
etc.). In his creative work, a teacher becomes more of a partner and another
participant than a person who provides information and passes judgements.
The term "cultural education" has replaced the concept of the "dissmination
of culture" which assumed that its task was to produce a passive recipient of
high culture. On the other hand, "cultural education" seeks methods which
help people in becoming active, creative and involved in a pursuit of their
cultural identity.
L e s z e k K o l a n k i e w i c z A R E P O R T F R O M H O L S T E B R O BY
The Chair of Polish Culture at Warsaw University conducts a course in
a widely comprehended anthropology of the theatre. The students have an
opportunity to attend lectures and seminars for several semesters, and then to
practice in various centres connected with the unconventional theatre. In this
report, they recall their encounter and work with Eugenio Barba and his
ensemble at the Odin Theatret.
H a l i n a W a l a s z e w s k a R E P O R T F R O M ŁUCZNICA T H E WOR­
Łucznica is the site of the Centre for the Animation of Culture, sponsored by
the Ministry of Culture and Art. One of its prime tasks is the organization of
workshops and courses for instructors from various cultural centres. The
author describes the theatrical workshops conducted by Leszek Mądzik, the
creator of the so-called Plastic Theatre at the Catholic University in Lublin,
one of the most celebrated stages in Poland.
H a n n a B a l t y n AN INVITATION TO A C O N C E R T
This is the story of Olena Leonenko, for whom singing is a way of life. She
spends her whole time wandering from place to place and collecting old folk
songs about Nature, God, the elements, human feelings, marriage, love, birth
and death.
Olena Leonenko left home in Kiev at the age of 16 and after failed attempts
to enroll at the muscial and theatrical academies in Moscow and St Petersburg,
she became a member of a mime group and a trevelling circus and then worked
as an instructor of stage motion. In 1988 she decided to conduct a theatre
studio which organized trips to the countryside; it was then that Olena's search
took on an ethnographic character.
Olena wants people to observe the world unconventionally and to
consciously coexist both with each other and with objects. Singing should lead
to the de-automatization of thought. For the past two years Olena Leonenko
has been working in Poland; she was originally invited by the "Wegajty"
ensemble and spent some time in the Grotowski Centre and in Gardzienice.
From 1992 she cooperates with the Theatre of the Eighth Day in Poznań.
"Musicians" is an interview held by Aleksander Jackowski with A n d ­
r z e j B i e ń k o w s k i , professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw and
a painter who is keenly interested in folk themes and particularly in village
musicians. Bieńkowski has an extensive photographic documentation and
a rich collection of video tapes (over 170 hours registered from 1985 on). The
"seances" recorded by him are a unique document of the techniques of
performance, mannerisms, behaviour and emotional tension of the village
artists. The interview itself concerns the original registration and creation of
documents of an increasingly extinct musical phenomenon in contemporary
folk culture, an undertaking which is Andrzej Bienkowski's great passion. In
"The Musicians of Radom Region" he concentrates, above all, on the
documentation of folk music in the voivodeship of Radom which he began in
1979. Andrzej Bieńkowski describes the members of these groups and their
instruments, as well as attempts at their "resurrection" and the necessity of
obtaining instruments - the majority of the musicians stopped playing quite
some time ago.
In "Problems of Video Documentation" the author deals with the
difficulties of this type of documentation and its achievements, as well as with
the authenticity of the musicians and their behaviour during performances.
J a n O k o ń T H E VESPERS E A S T E R M Y S T E R Y P L A Y
In 1971 the Religious Theatre of the Word was established in Trybsz by
Bolesław Maria Kozyra, a Cistercian monk, and Stanisław Jarzębski, a history
teacher from the local secondary school. In 1979 Father Kozyra moved to
Mogiła where he founded the Theatre of the Word of the Cross, which shows
"The History of the Glorious Resurrection of the Lord" according to the
sixteenth-century version by Jan Karol Dachnowski. This article is an
attempted report and evaluation of the spectacle.
Research intoritualsvery often ignored the problem of feelins already at the
stage of gathering material. The author of this article presents many examples
of aritualizednecessity to demonstrate feelins (sadness, joy, laughter, tears) in
annual and family rituals. Thus, the demonstration of merriment is not the
outcome of the "degeneration" of the ritual and its transformation into a game
but its required and structural moment. Laughter, after all, has a profound
symbolic meaning. The author indicates various techniques whose purpose и
to stimulate feelings appropriate for a given moment.


“Summary of articles / Polska Sztuka Ludowa - Konteksty 1993 t.47 z.2,” Cyfrowa Etnografia, Dostęp 1 lipca 2022,

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